虽然有不同的饮食减少肉类摄入, 从素食主义者到弹性素食主义者, 素食主义的碳足迹最低, 是关于善待动物和地球的. 纯素食主义是指拒绝吃、穿或以其他方式消费动物产品. 作为一种关心他人的生活方式，为什么会遭到尖刻的批评呢?
The loudest proponents of veganism have made the diet seem exclusionary—as if it’s impossible to care about the climate without being vegan. Even more exclusionary is the veganism commercialized by celebrities who sell an upscale vegan lifestyle and even weight-loss scheme. Often, these vegan influencers are white and do not acknowledge the cultures they are appropriating for their vegan recipes, nor do they acknowledge the damaging environmental impacts of trendy vegan foods—many mock meats contain genetically modified soy, 导致了森林砍伐, habitat loss, and toxic pesticide use.
让主流素食运动更具包容性, it will need to recognize where it intersects with other issues—whether that’s the planet, animals, or marginalized communities—and help people understand that veganism is more than a diet, 而是一种优先考虑解放人民的思维方式, animals, and the environment.
Beyond the Diet
LoriKim Alexander is a self-identified Black dyke vegan and organizer in New York City. 亚历山大的素食做法是为了教育和社区, 她在那里组织像黑色蔬菜节这样的团体, 北布朗克斯集团, and The Cypher. 她希望有色人种的纯素食者和被边缘化的性别身份能够得到关注.
“We, Black, 土著和全球大多数人民, 拥有这些知识并影响了几代人的工作吗,” Alexander says. “如果彩票平台购买真的致力于结束这个星球上所有受压迫的生物的压迫, 那么就必须来自受压迫的人类——黑人, Indigenous, 和全球大多数人, especially trans, 非二元和性别不一致的人.”
For Alexander, inclusion is one part of the conversation; for inclusion to work, 信息的传递必须经过仔细考虑，并与文化相关.
Alexander worked on a mutual aid project in the Bronx neighborhood to feed predominantly Black and brown folks vegan, 大流行期间的全食超市, 也可以培养一个森林片段来进行自然学习. Through the project, Alexander can connect ideas like food justice with veganism and environmental stewardship.
This project captures her nonhuman-centered approach that prioritizes liberation for all beings—for Alexander, 纯素食主义是将被边缘化的人类和非人类动物放在她的脑海中.
“成为真正的素食主义者意味着彩票平台购买着眼于最可持续的, equitable, and careful ways of going about feeding ourselves and taking care of ourselves in the world,” she says.
Part of that is recognizing that industrial animal agriculture not only oppresses animals, but marginalized groups, too.
Going vegan can reduce the effects of the climate crisis—factory farms account for 37% of methane emissions—and veganism can also reduce the impact of pollution on marginalized communities. Environmental Working Group’s 2020 “Fields of Filth” report demonstrates that communities of color are still the most affected by pollution from factory farms—and farmworkers are exposed to diseases and pesticides at disproportionately high rates.
Initially, Z. 赞恩·麦克尼尔14岁时为了动物成为素食主义者, but their identity as a nonbinary vegan has helped them recognize how seemingly disparate social issues intertwine. McNeill is a co-editor of “Queer and Trans Voices: Achieving Liberation Through Consistent Anti-Oppression,，揭示了种族主义等问题之间的深刻联系, transphobia, xenophobia, and animal agriculture. Alexander is also a contributor to the book and talks about the limitations of the word “inclusion” in the vegan movement.
McNeill notes how the vegan movement has prioritized animal rights without including Black and brown communities, 在同一制度下受压迫的是什么.
屠宰场因其危险的工作条件而闻名. 工人受伤的可能性是其他行业的三倍多. 工人——其中三分之一是移民, 四分之一是非法移民, and some whom are currently incarcerated—live in fear of deportation or punishment to report workplace and animal abuses. As undercover investigations into concentrated animal feed operations (CAFOs) are outlawed, the ability to reveal dangerous workplace conditions and inhumane animal treatment goes with it. 从这种沉默中获益最大的是肉类加工企业.
It would make sense for vegan advocacy organizations and immigrant and worker rights organizations to work together to end these abuses for the collective liberation of both parties. Yet in 2019, 700 Latin American workers were arrested when US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) raided several chicken processing plants in Mississippi—the largest workplace raid to ever occur in a single state. Facility operators, 受雇于美国最富有的肉类公司, complied with officers—and white-led vegan advocacy organizations remained mostly silent. Alexander says that Black- and Latinx-led vegan groups have been working on this for years now. 现在是白人主导的素食组织为黑人发声的时候了, brown, 还有移民工人.
Human rights and animal rights groups will have to cultivate intersectional approaches to veganism in order to collaborate toward collective liberation, according to McNeill.
“In my perspective, 你不为同性恋解放而战就不能为动物解放而战, 为黑人和环境伸张正义, 还有移民和屠宰场工人,” McNeill says.
Contributors to McNeill’s book draw parallels between white supremacy and animal oppression. Leah Kirts writes that their uncle’s cruelty towards cows on his dairy farm mirrored his abuse towards the undocumented Mexican immigrants he employed. Reducing non-white humans and humans with marginalized gender identities to an “other” mirrors the behavior of “othering” animals.
For Alexander and McNeill, understanding veganism as an ideological framework is to recognize the many ways marginalized groups—both human and nonhuman—are oppressed by white supremacy. 无论是为食物主权而战, animal liberation, immigrant rights, LGBTQ+ rights, or environmental racism, it’s important to consider how these issues intersect to work towards solutions that don’t leave any one issue behind.
麦克尼尔说:“很多(朋友)已经开始把纯素食主义理解为一种政治。. “当他们做直接的行动工作时, 吃植物性食物并不总是可能的, 但他们总是为动物解放而战, as well as their work fighting pipelines—which has a direct impact on not just human communities and the environment, 还有动物群落.”
对人慷慨是让素食主义包容的重要因素, says Alexander, 谁鼓励欢迎不完美的进步.
Order a copy of Queer and Trans Voices: Achieving Liberation Through Consistent Anti-Oppression from Sanctuary Publishers